IW3C2 is committed to producing an online set of Proceedings for the complete set of WWW Conferences with the correct interlinking between volumes. IW3C2 also has a strong commitment to Web Standards and for that reason there is a requirement that papers submitted to the Conference are in current standard HTML format (which is currently XHTML). To aid in the production of the online version, the printed Conference Proceedings and the CD-ROM, it is important that authors produce their papers in a standard format in strict XHTML. By doing this the production process can be accelerated and this allows the date for final papers to be left as late as possible.
The proceedings are the records of the conference. ACM hopes to give these conference by-products a single, high-quality appearance. To do this, we ask that authors follow some simple guidelines. In essence, we ask you to make your paper look exactly like this document. Though much of the proposed style is explained here, please consult also the source of this document to correctly apply the formatting.
Papers should be formatted using standard XHTML elements (h1-h6, ul, ol, li, p etc). For a brief introduction to the XHTML syntax, please refer to Appendix A: XHTML Hints. Please incorporate the following line in the <head> of your document's source code:
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/style.css" type="text/css" />
This Cascading Style Sheet will take care of much of the formatting for you, if you follow the rules described in this document.
2. General Notes
All paper submissions must be in English.
The total number of words should not exceed 8,000 words.
The HTML file and all relevant images should be compiled into a zip file and uploaded onto the WWW2004 conference paper submission site.
3. Paper Structure
Please adhere to the following layout order when writing your papers:
- Authors and Affiliations
- Main body of text
- Sub-sections (if applicable)
- Author vitae (optional)
4. The Metadata of the Paper
The whole metadata section at the top of this paper is enclosed in a div classed "metadata". Heading level 1 is used for the title, classed "title". The whole list of the authors is enclosed in a div classed as "authors". Individual authors are enclosed in divs classed "author". The data for one author looks like this: 1st level heading with class "author" for the name, 2nd level heading with class "affiliation" for the details of the institute, 3rd level heading with class "email" for the email address. (The similar details for authors from similar institutes should be repeated.) The ABSTRACT is headed by an h2 element of class "abstract" and contains a p element of class "abstract". The KEYWORDS section is headed by an h2 element of class "keywords" and contains a p element of class "keywords".
The metadata at the top of this paper looks like this in the source:
<div class="meta"> <h1 class="title">HTML Paper Submission Guidelines</h1> <div class="authors"> <div class="author"> <h1 class="author"><b>Bob Hopgood</b></h1> <h2 class="affiliation">Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus<br /> Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP, United Kingdom</h2> <h3 class="email">email@example.com</h3> </div> <div class="author"> <h1 class="author"><b>Gergo Kiss</b></h1> <h2 class="affiliation">Computer and Automation Research Institute,<br /> Hungarian Academy of Sciences<br /> Lagymanyosi u. 11, Budapest, H-1111, Hungary</h2> <h3 class="email">firstname.lastname@example.org</h3> </div> </div> <div class="abstract"> <h2 class="abstract">Abstract</h2> <p class="abstract">This document describes the HTML formatting guidelines for WWW2004 Proceedings. We do encourage authors to follow the formatting. This document has been formatted following these rules.</p> </div> <div class="keywords"> <h2 class="keywords">Keywords</h2> <p class="keywords">Keywords are your own designated keywords. See the appendix for a suggested set of keywords to choose from.</p> </div> </div>
5. Basic Formatting
5.1 Sections and Subsections
Format section titles as h2 elements. Format subsection titles as h3 elements.
5.2 Body Text
- Enclose your paragraphs between p tags. Using the style.css style sheet, the first line of paragraphs will get indented. To avoid this, set the paragraph's class to "noindent".
- Use blockquote to indent complete blocks of cited text.
- Use the pre tag to include code segments.
- Use the ul, ol and li tags to create listings
6. Paper Size
All material must be printable within a rectangle of 18 x 23.5 cm (7" x 9.25") from an XHTML enabled browser (see Appendix A.2 for a list of these) using the CSS style sheet specified earlier in this document.
Probably the hardest thing to get right in XHTML is mathematics. Some approaches are:
- Write the mathematics in MathML and then do a conversion of the formulae to an image format such as SVGor GIF/PNG. (SchemaSoft Custard translates MathML to SVG, but seems to work only on MathML's presentation markup, and not on content markup.)
- A similar process can be used if you define the mathematics in Word.
- For Unix users, there are a number of converters which vary in their competence. The ones that generate deeply nested XHTML tables are probably not the best approach.
If you add images in GIF, PNG or JPEG format, it is probably be sensible to use the img element. Be sure to make it a valid XHTML element and make sure it has an alt attribute. For example:
<div class="image"> <p class="image"><img src="illustration.jpg" width="251" height="251" alt="Illustration" /></p> <p class="caption">Example Image</p> </div>
Which with the current style sheet would render as:
It is important to give the image's size in case some automatic rescaling is needed. We would prefer images not to exceed 1000 by 750 and we may scale them to fit on ther page.
For SVG graphics use:
<div class="image"> <object width="1000" height="750" data="myfile.svg" type="image/svg+xml"> <img src="myfile.png" width="500" height="375" alt="My picture of this" /> </object> </div>
For now this is probably the best approach. The SVG will be used if the browser supports SVG and otherwise the PNG image. SVG implementations like Batik will do the conversion to PNG for you.
Compile al images together with the HTML file into a zip file and upload onto the WWW2004 conference paper submission site.
The table element must have a summary attribute. Try and keep tables simple. A good format for a table with headings and an initial header column would look something like:
<div class="table"> <p class="caption">Example Table</p> <table summary="My Test Table"> <col width="20%" /> <col width="30%" /> <col width="30%" /> <thead> <tr> <th>First</th><th>Second</th><th>Third</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <th>Heading</th><td>Data</td><td>Data</td> </tr> <tr> <th>Heading2</th><td>Data2</td><td>Data2</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
which would appear as:
Hyperlinks within the paper and to related files must follow a strict naming structure:
Use relative addresses and the id tag to link sections of
the same file. Example:
In addition to the many algorithms available, there are also <a href="#other_list">other methods</a>... . . . <h2 id="other_list">Additional Resources</h2>
- Necessary external links must specify the full absolute pathname.
- If the volunteer publishers want to build links among the papers in a conference, these should NOT be built in the version of the papers sent to ACM for inclusion in the Digital Library. Inter-article links cannot be supported in the DL.
Do not add navigation links in the articles, instead rely
on the client browser's GO BACK feature to return readers
to the Table of Contents.
Note: Inclusion of HTML proceedings in the Digital Library is desirable. However, the experience of SIGs that have prepared HTML files in the past is that it is an extensive, resource intensive effort. Please consult with those SIGs that have already completed an HTML proceedings on the nature and extent of the work.
Appendix A: XHTML Hints
The current W3C standard for HTML is XHTML. That is not as big a difference as you might think from what you are doing at the moment. The X indicates that the HTML is well-formed XML and that brings with it the ability to transform and reformat the papers using the standard XML tools. In XHTML, marked up information consists of a set of elements that have the general form:
Both the start and end tags must be lowercase, and the end tag must be present. Tags must also be correctly nested. This would be illegal:
<xyz>Some <abc>more content<def>added</abc></def></xyz>
Either the def element must be completely inside the abc element or completely outside it.
Elements may have attributes and these form part of the start tag:
<xyz attr1="sometext" attrtr2='somemoretext'>Some content</xyz>
Attributes consist of the attribute name followed by the equal sign and a value which is a string of text inside one of two types of quotation marks (double quotes: ASCII decimal 34; single quotation marks: ASCII decimal 39). Two types are allowed in case the attribute's value contains quotation marks. The start and end quotation marks must either both be single or both be double quotes.
A shorthand is provided for element's that contain no content. For example:
<xyz attr1="sometext" attr2=2='somemoretext'></xyz>
may also be written:
<xyz attr1="sometext" attr2='somemoretext' />
A strict XHTML 1.0 document would have the following structure:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" ?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> <html> <head> . . </head> <body> . . </body> </html>
The designation of strict requires that styling of the document is done via CSS and not by attributes applied to the XHTML elements (apart from a CSS style attribute where necessary).
A.2 XHTML Broswers
This is a list of browsers that support XHTML:
- Internet Explorer 6
- Mozilla 1.x
- Netscape 6.2 or 7
- Opera 5
A.3 XHTML Tools
Some important tools for creating valid XHTML (either form scratch or from HTML source) are available. These are:
- Amaya: located at http://www.w3.org/Amaya, Amaya is a complete web browsing and authoring environment and comes equipped with a "WYSIWYG style" of interface, similar to that of the most popular commercial browsers. With such an interface, users can easily generate HTML and XHTML pages, as well as CSS style sheets, MathML expressions, and SVG drawings (full support of SVG is not yet available, though). It is also a good tool for checking against XHTML compliance.
HTML Tidy: originally from W3C but now located at
will take HTML and will either list the errors or, if it
can understand it, will convert it into XHTML for you. The
following command will take your HTML file and convert it
tidy -f errorfile.txt -m -asxml myfile.html
Note this will overwrite your existing file so make a copy before you do this!
- XHTML Validator: located at http://validator.w3.org/ this will check a file you present it against the various versions of XHTML. You can upload your paper to it and check it against Strict XHTML and see if it passes and if not why not.
- Word: it is possible to generate XHTML of reasonable quality starting from a Word document. You have to realise that SAVE AS into an HTML file will not do the job. That will leave a large amount of Word information in the document to allow you to move back to a Word document. Microsoft provides a utility that you can download called HTML Filter. You then Export To the Compact HTML format. This will remove the Word specific parts of the file. If the file is then put through Tidy you will land up with a small compact XHTML document. The download site is currently http://office.microsoft.com/downloads/2000/Msohtmf2.aspx although a search for Microsoft HTML Filter will find it.
- Latex: to be defined
Appendix B: Keywords for Technical Areas
Below is a suggested set of keywords and their sub-classes that have been used in previous Conferences.