|The objective of our work is to enhance the
usability of Web enterprise applications when accessed by mobile devices. Our approach is
a combination of cost efficient server-side adaptation and extensions to established
markup languages to assist in single source authoring. For this purpose we have defined a
so-called Renderer-Independent Markup Language (RIML) that we like to present and to
discuss with the workshop participants.
RIML is used for defining the user interface of
Web enterprise applications in a renderer-independent way. A RIML document can be
transformed into multiple target languages suitable for a wide range of visual browsers on
mobile devices and even voice browsers. The inclusion of application-level clues enables
an efficient and automated transformation into the respective target markup language,
ensuring that the generated output on targeted devices and browsers meets user
expectations. RIML as an XML-based language combines features of several existing markup
languages in a XHTML language profile. The RIML profile specification defines which parts
of XHTML are used and how parts of XForms, SMIL BasicContentControl and new extensions are
The presentation and subsequent discussion in the workshop will focus on the features
of the RIML language profile, which are:
- Focus on device-independent visual and voice user interface description
- Device independent forms with XForms, and translation into multiple target languages.
- Multiple layouts: The author can define multiple overall page layouts in a single RIML
document. We will describe how RIML allows defining multiple page layouts separately from
the document content.
- Pagination and navigation: Whenever a RIML document is too large to fit on a single
page, it will be paginated. The division into multiple pages and means for navigating
among these pages are generated automatically from application-level hints provided by the
author. We will describe the language features RIML introduces for this purpose.
- Alternative and optional content: RIML allows for alternative variants of the same
content and also optional content through RIML Extended Content Control that is based on
- Additional Content Control test attributes on technical device and on browser level and
especially usability level allow including sufficient application-level clues into a RIML
to ensure usable adaptation results on a wide range of terminals.
We intend to use the feedback from the workshop for future improved versions of RIML.
The development of a RIML adaptation system and some demonstration applications is
underway. We will report on first results as well.
A consortium consisting of SAP Research, IBM Germany, and Nokia Research Center along
with CURE, UbiCall, and Fuijitsu Invia carries out this on-going work, which is partly
funded by the European Union. The name of this joint project is CONSENSUS, its home page
can be found from http://www.consensus-online.org/.