Urban Terror Jumping Techniques Guide
Q3UT3 Guide Version 0.9.8
1. Movement in the Game engine and FPS
2. Wall Jumping
3. Strafe Jumping
4. Circle Jumping
5. Ledge Climbing
7. "Real" Strafe Jumping
8. The Beat-strafe Techniques
9. Using Game Characters
10. Various Sub-Techniques
11. Advanced Combinations
13. Tips and Evil Tricks, Proper Timing, Practice
14. Map Designer Information
15. Props and Credits
Jumping Technique #1: Movement in the Game engine and FPS
The faster you move the faster and further you jump. So, you want to first learn what kinds of movement in the game engine exist and how you can possibly improve the use of them. Also, you have to be familiar with the stamina level.
Something you should be aware of and sounds odd at first, is that for the game engine it doesn't really matter where your character looks at. e.g. if you're moving sideways left and then you press front movement or back, is equivalent to ordinarily moving front and then moving sideways. Speed is the same that is, in either way, even if it sounds odd(because it is odd to do that in real life). However, what does make it a bit different in UrT is that we won't get sprinting velocity by moving sideways or backwards but only front.
Walking: this won't be very useful to get impressive jumps and running is usually locked in the default installation anyway. We won't discuss its use here at all.
Running: running mode is enabled by default in fresh installations of Urban Terror or you can turn it on from the controls menu.
Sprinting: Sprinting is a good friend of a urt jumper, its use is necessary for the most impressive jumps.
You should bind a key to the sprint function using the 'controls' menu in-game or by using something like this in console:
/bind x "+button8" // replace "x" with a key of choice.
Another way to sprint, is to press the left and right strafe keys simultaneously.
You can also lock its use with a key using this script:
set sl_00 "set sl_f vstr sl_01; +button8; ut_echo SPRINT"
set sl_01 "set sl_f vstr sl_00; -button8; ut_echo RUN"
set sl_f "vstr sl_01" // Set Default
bind x "vstr sl_f" // Replace "x" with a key of choice
(a fast and proper way to use scripts is to paste them into autoexec.cfg, a file you should create into your q3ut3 user dir)
Locking sprint with a key is not considered by all users a good idea but if you're sprinting more often than running, why not? go ahead and use it.
Btw, about the script, pressing strafe (sideways) left and right at the same time sprints, so even by chance that combo happens for a moment, sprint unlocks.
A hacky way to stop that happening is to use at least one of the strafe(sideways) movements to two keys and the combo won't do anything if not all keys are pressed.
Maximum initial speed:
Unfortunately we don't have a "draw speed" var in UrT yet to show the facts easily, but you should be aware that:
a) Moving in a straight line (even if going sideways or backwards, with the exception of sprinting, read above about this) you will reach a maximum speed that does not alter in time. We could say that roughly this is "2 steps" or more.
We're talking simply about this:
So, especially when sprinting(because stamina wears off), it won't do much good to move a long way to get max speed before the initial jump. After a point the character reaches a max velocity that does not change in time(unless you're sprinting or you're seriously wounded and have no stamina, in which case it will get even worse).
b) "Moving in a curve" gains speed. Since there's no "draw ups" in UrT yet, just remember that you gain near 25% more out of normal speed (if you're looking for quake3 "units per sec" numbers, it's 320ups in normal running, around 400ups with a nice curve(these numbers don't apply necessarily to UrT technically, only as a reference to the point)).
In this screenshot is shown what I mean, we face the jumping point at 90 degrees and then running/sprinting in a curve:
This method of movement is sometimes referenced as "circle jumping". However, in this guide we will use the term also for another closely related method.
Holding the jump key while on air: Simply don't. It will make speed less in most situations, press it only when you're actually going to jump(or walljump or boot slap). It is reported up to 30% loss of velocity by exercising this habit.
In this picture the arrow shows where the stamina level indicator is located in-game(or more properly, on its "HUD").
If your stamina is gone you can't sprint and can't jump as high as before. You are more or less crippled as a jumper. So, you better take notice of its level at all times.
You probably have already noticed its existence and you may even have noticed it goes down if you jump. What you probably don't know is that it also goes down when you're sprinting and it goes down faster when you're currying a negev or you're wearing a kevlar vest, because of the extra weight those two carry. Especially negev.
So, if you're off for some impressive jumps and you're puzzled whether to pick a negev or not, or you can't decide between a vest and a helmet, now you know what to do :-) Get whatever you want, but not a kevlar and a negev. However, it's common, especially in CTF, to drop the vest fast when needed with:
bind x ut_itemdrop kevlar // replace "x" with a key of choice
Also, keep in mind an individual jump is not affected by the level of stamina at that time, except if it's zero or you're wounded. So, with a single jump in full stamina, you'll fly the same distance as you would, with a stamina that is just about to run out.
Ok, a short comment about FPS(frames per second). For some time quake3 users used whatever fps their card randomly gave them for their game settings and hardware. After a while some users realized that their jumping distance/speed was actually affected by different values of fps and it was proved using proper maths based on the q3 engine that if you actually had a specific FPS value that came out of list of "optimal values" (e.g. a commonly used value was 125frames/sec) you'd get the best jumps.
This is considered to belong to the past. With cg_physics set to "1" (i.e. "On") FPS is totally unrelated to physics. It's even "1" by default so don't worry at all about it. You're set.
Jumping Technique #2: Wall Jumping
I'll start discussing the actual jumping methods with wall jumping since IMO it's the easiest to perform at least on this - old, and pre-walljump - map of choice. Ok, it's generally this: "When you're on air after a jump or a fall, and you're in contact with a wall, press jump and move to the direction of the wall, and you'll bounce off it". Also keep in mind that you do not have to face a wall in order to walljump, even if it is at your back but you're still touching it, you can bounce off it provided you press a directional key to that direction at the same time (e.g. the forward key if we're facing forward or the "+back" if backwards etc.).
There's also a limiter in place on the amount of walljumps you can do before hitting the ground: Three(3). After three subsequent walljumps, walljumping gets disabled.
Better to see a simple case of that, on these screenshots and demo:
Here we run towards the edge, we could sprint too and we'd go further, but in this map and point of it at least, it's not necessary. Just running will do.
We're on the air after the initial jump near the edge waiting to touch the wall, by the time we touch it, we press jump again. We have to press a directional key towards the wall at the same time. In this case, the forward key.
Ok, here we just pressed jump when we were touching the wall and off we went! Bounced in an angle similar to the one we started and we're heading towards the other edge.
weee! we are at the other side.
If you need the demo from the screenshots you'll need this in the "demo" dir of your q3ut3 user dir:
and the map "ut_jumps.pk3" in your q3ut3 dir (not ut_jumps2.pk3, but ut_jumps.pk3)
then you can run the demo from the game menu.
You can also - and should - run the map with "\map ut_jumps" to try it yourself.
Jumping Technique #3. Strafe Jumping
First of all - as I said in the introduction - don't pay too much attention on the titles but on the methods themselves. When describing strafe jumping this is important since some trickjumpers will explain it as a combination of strafe and circle jumping and others as just pressing strafe keys. In this document - for simplicity and to make things easier - we will do both. I will first cut the explanation into two parts, strafe jumping and circle jumping, because both can be used individually and then we can follow on to combinations of the two and advanced uses of them.
Ok, strafe jumping, this won't help a lot initially when a jump comes after sprinting but it will work better when just running.
The assumed reason for this oddity is that in base quake3, moving either sideways (strafing) or front/back you get the same speed as we've already established on the first section of the guide. However in UrT when we sprint, we get the sprinting speed only when going front, therefore strafes don't really help there.
This is not to make the assumption that it's useless in sprinting. We will use it when we get to advanced trickjumping.
Ok, Strafe jumping is pressing the strafe left or right key (or the single strafe key and moving the mouse) while you're jumping, while you're in the air that is, exactly after the point you jump until the point you land. The strafe keys are actually the keys that let you move 'sideways'. I place them to MOUSE1 and MOUSE2. However most people use A and D or S and F. Better go with A and D or S and F, unless you're weird like me. Pressing either left or right while on the air will do.
On these screenshots from the same map is demonstrated a gain in distance using strafe jumping. To do it, we must jump *exactly* at the edge or the test won't be valid:
Here's is what we can do with just running+jumping from one edge, to the other edge.
The result of running+ jumping+ strafing. The gain in distance is noticeable...
The demo (same map, same everything as before): demo file
..But we still didn't make it to the other side :-) which brings us to..
#4. Circle Jumping
Ok, this is a bit more difficult to perform than the previous method.
Circle jumping by some people is only considered the initial "running in a curve" we were talking about in the first section of this guide. However, for simplicity and readability this guide also uses the term for this closely related method.
Circle jumping is jumping and turning your character to the left or right while on air. Keep in mind that the "turning" should be done continuously, from the point you jump to the point you land. Don't try to turn only instanteneously while on mid-air or it will certainly fail.
It's a jumping method difficult to start with, mainly because you have to turn continuously and not just in mid-air, but you get the hang of it after some practice, don't worry.
The "turning" can be done with the "turn keys" but better save fingers for other bindings and don't use turn keys at all: just move your mouse left or right.
Also, contrary to general belief you do not have to do the initial jump while you are running in a curve in order to circle jump (although it will improve initial running speed as already demonstrated).
Sth important, the final turn doesn't have to end being 90 degrees in total, however, many times it ends to 90 degress because it's easier that way. In reality, the total turn can be much smaller, provided there was still continuous turning, and not just a fast turn at the start and then just waiting to land, that would fail.
We have sprinted till the very edge (a bit before won't do it at this point of this map), and we see here the initial jump, a moment after it. We already start the turning(by the time we're on air), but we try not to be too fast with it. As I said, you do not have to "run in a curve" before the initial jump (I didn't in this demo) but it will help getting more initial running speed if you needed it. Also, see the script about locking sprint above, if you hate keeping it pressed while you practice.
Here we are almost at mid way, we have already turned about 40-45 degrees.
Just before we land on the other side. We did it!
The landing was done at nearly 90 degrees from the starting point, however, as already explained that's not necessary, it's just many times the result we get because it's easier that way. However, after some practice, it beneficial performing circle jumps with the smallest degree possible for the practical reason of knowing what's going on around (e.g watching out for enemies or where to land). That means of course that sometimes a wider angle may be more appropriate (e.g. because enemies may hide at the sides).
Better watch the demo and practice on the map if you've never seen or done that. Btw, sprinting and going to the very edge of the ledge is only needed on this point of this map. It's of course not necessary for the method itself.
Read at the wall jumping section of this document about how to run the demo and to actually play the level yourself.
Now, to some more detailed and advanced stuff.
#5: Ledge Climbing
Ok, this doesn't sound very advanced :-) but you know what, it can be. This is because if you grab a ledge instead of landing on the surface it resides, you can actually survive a lemming crash. This is used in some practicing maps and by some ppl on standard maps like uptown on purpose. So if you think you can lemming crash after a jump but you can actually grab a ledge, that may be the trick to survive. Actually it's one of the most difficult things in the game to do in some instances, so don't take it too lightly :-)
Bunnyhopping may sound funny or even irritating to some but it's actually the only way to maintain speed after subsequent jumps. So, if you "rest for a bit"(we're talking about fractions of a second) you lose all or most of your speed up to that point. So, hit jump again a bit before a fall to maintain the speed you have gained from the previous jumps up to that point.
Many spots are inaccessible without bunnyhopping, and its use needs precision in most cases(mainly because of "steering" problems while on air).
Note that Bunnyhopping is also referenced as a method to keep away from bullets on a stationary post. But this interpretation is irrelevant to our cause.
The next two sections are closely related and greatly extend the use of bunnyhopping but also circle/strafe jumping.
#7: "Real" Strafe jumping
(rarely referenced as "gliding")
As already mentioned, definitions vary between trickjumping descriptions and in this section we will describe what most people refer to as strafe jumping. It's actually a combination of what we described as "strafe" and "circle" jumping.
What we mean as "real" strafe jumping is circling to the left or right and using a strafe key at the same time.
This method doesn't have a very noticeable advantage on single jumps. However, its importance is more obvious on advanced combinations or when we have to bunnyhop a far distance.
It is obviously the most effective kind of jump but also the most complicated to master because it needs more keys. It's complicated for one more reason. If the strafe part is fine but circling is wrong we'll get some advantage and vice versa, but only when both parts are perfomed right at the same time, optimum speed is achieved.
Here's a demonstration of this jumping type at its simplest form.
This is the point at the initial jump. Sprinting and/or going in a curve before, helps significantly as already demonstrated.
Here we are at mid-way. We're circling to the left (right would do the same) and we keep pressing the left strafe key (right would do the same also, if we faced right). This is actually the point we keep gaining speed beyond normal.
Just at the point we land. Yeay!
Here is the demo from that particular screenshots demonstrating the idea:
#8: The beat-strafe techniques
The methods that follow can be used to achieve optimal speed and keeping control of the character on a straight line at the same time when bunnyhopping. btw, it should be obvious already that in UrT we can't keep those for long in a single go because of the stamina level.
Full beat strafing (sometimes referenced as "1-beat strafing")
This is changing side after each jump. For example:
- first sprint or run in a straight or curved line
- then jump and and keep turning left + hold left strafe
- jump and turn right + right strafe
- jump and turn left + left strafe
Double beat strafing (also referenced as "2-beat strafing")
This is similar but changing side after two subsequent jumps instead of one. e.g.:
- first sprint or run in a straight or curved line
- then jump and turn left + hold left strafe
- jump and turn left + left strafe
- jump and turn right + right strafe
- jump and turn right + right strafe
This is a bit more complicated:
("left and rights" can be swapped)
- After the first jump, face left at around 45 degrees, and keep pressing front and the left strafe.
- On the next jump release the front key + keep facing left and press the right strafe.
- and so on.
#9: Using Game Characters
This deserves its own category because it's funny and actually works better than anything else on many cases :-)
If you jump on top of someone you can actually stand on his/er head or you can use him/er as a mid-jump point. Then you can actually go in places no other technique would let you go. If you even happen to use 2 or 3 people for the purpose, then the possibilities are endless :P
These are little tricks that come out of the main methods. Some of them are:
Ricochet walljumping: This is getting further using walljumping with 2 or more objects that are all in different angles to each other. For example: you first bounce off a tree then you bounce of a wall directly behind it then again on another wall that is in a different angle of the first wall, and off you go to a roof that was inaccessible otherwise.
It's nothing too difficult as an idea but here are some screenshots with their demos demonstrating the method in its simplest form:
Demo 1: Getting up on this street light in Uptown:
Demo 2: Getting up on this roof in the same map:
Demo 3: A slightly more complicated deal. Using 2 walljumping spots to get up on that roof on jumpit.pk3:
Wall-series walljumping: Walljumping across several walls that are all put in way to create a "curve formation" so to go through them you walljump on each and every wall in turn. Impressive how far you can go in that way.
and the demo.
Sprinting was used for that.
"Zig-Zag" walljumping: Actually the same method as before but in an odd form of it.
Better to be shown with a picture:
the video and the demo for jumpit.pk3.
In that particular demo, sprinting and circle jumping was used inbetween.
Notice the 3-jumps limit in those last two examples.
#11: Advanced Combinations
Ok, this is limitless and it's not actually a technique but a whole category of advanced jumps that are performed by combining what we have already discussed. e.g. "sprint, then bunnyhop while circle/strafe jumping, then circle/strafe jump again, then wall jump, then grab a ledge because you would lemming crash otherwise" etc. etc.
Here is a simple example with a screenshot and a demo file. We have to bunnyhop twice while sprinting, then "circle jump", then "wall jump" and finally ledge grab(btw, it can also be done without ledge grabbing or with different combinations):
You will need the map "jumpit.pk3" to play the demo or practice on it. Nice training map. Get some friends in it and it becomes fun :-).
If you happen to watch an impressive video with jumps, you will most probably see advanced combinations in it (try "WallhopperZ" for example, just impressive).
#12: Overbouncing Techniques
Overbouncing happens only in certain spots in maps because of certain heights the objects create. It can happen from extremely small heights, like a step, to a whole multistorey building height.
What basically happens is that "you jump again without hitting jump" but what also happens though, is that you get apart from the initial jumping height, the overbouncing height too. So, it can be used to accelerate more than you would usually do without overbouncing.
Also, there's a "sticky" definition in the subject. If you get a "sticky" you "hold" it until you change horizontal level in the game.
Since it already got too complicated in words better first look at this screenshot:
The arrows show the same particular pavement in ut_uptown that coincidentally if we just step on it and then go to the main road that it(the pavement) surrounds, we hold the "sticky" I was talking about. If we then, being on the same road - as I said, we should not change horizontal level to "keep the sticky"- we press jump, we will overbounce and actually jump again getting our jump's distance + the sticky distance.
Now, since this is not very useful at least on the particular case we should introduce the ideas of "horizontal" and "vertical overbounce jumps".
A vertical overbounce happens if we have no speed in either direction apart from the vertical one. So, if for example on the previous screenshot we are still on the road, after we've got a sticky from the pavement of course, and only press jump once, we will overbounce.
Now, if we press front, or back, or sideways(strafes) while on air after the first jump, we will overbounce to that direction. So, we will get a boost which can be actually used to bunnyhop twice but better than normally.
Now, the demo. This is recorded on that particular location of the screenshot in ut_uptown and shows the ideas I was describing in action: the demo, the video
Here's a slightly more complicated case in the same map, demonstrating a vertical overbounce jump: the demo for it, the video
notice that the distance that made us overbounce in this case, is not a pavement, but a whole floor. Also, we should jump before, in that particular case, to get the overbounce height, not just fall on the spot.
And here's the same but horizontal, we can use it to get fast into the building. another use would be to get an initial boost to another direction to bounce to buildings nearby.: the demo, the video
I found the horizontal overbounces much easier when it gets complicated, since in those cases it's much more difficult to maintain zero speed in either direction apart from vertical.
If you need another easy spot to test overbouncing, check out this one from uptown. You'll have to jump to the floor, not just fall on it.
#13: Tips and Evil Tricks, Proper Timing, Practice
Practice practice practice practice practice practice practice practice practice .. :
Advanced combinations of jumps and even simpler ones should be performed in proper timing or they fail. Know your timing, know your steps. In some particular situations you could even use bullet marks to take notice of specific points you would step or jump at. Practice could be your best friend but also some thinking and marking is necessary. Know the spots you would jump or land at, make good notice of the timing this should be done. Sometimes we know exactly what to do and how to do each individual step but we fail in the execution. Why? Bad timing of the individual steps the sequence is performed.
Walljumping at the right spot
Since walljumps are made by the jump key + moving to the direction of the wall, in case the right(usually the higher) spot is "missed", a method for that to not happen is to have the jump key pressed for a time before the actual contact to the wall. This method however has its drawback since the jump key should be avoided being pressed continuously on air as explained in a previous section. So this method should be used only if the player fails a lot performing walljumps the right way or when it's used in a limited way, keeping in mind improvement does not mean to use the trick, but using it less and less after practice.
The "evil" trick of timescale:
If a map is run with \devmap, timescale can also be adjusted with "\timescale #", where # is a number, it can also be a fraction, e.g., 0.2. Timescale makes the game go slower or faster, e.g. a timescale of 2, "\timescale 2" makes the game run twice faster. With this feature one can practice on higher speeds to make sure in servers can do even better. Or, in very slow speeds to explore the way to make a jump that seems difficult at first. It's an "evil" trick because one could make a "pro" video out of it, if a slower timescale is recorded on a demo but that's fine. Videos are for the entertainment of the viewers and the var was there from like forever and many ppl know about it. Another problem could be that one could get used to it and then won't be able to play properly in the default timescale.
The "evil" trick of g_gravity:
This is another way to explore jumping in urban terror - and it's fun - , but, like timescale, it has its drawbacks. One could get used to jump and lower values of gravity than the default, and then find it difficult to play in normal games. However it can be useful like timescale is useful in higher values. A higher gravity than normal trains the gamer to harder conditions that normal.
Both the above tricks should be used - if used at all - with care, or they can cause more problems that they could solve.
The weird trick of walljump-ledge climbing:
When you're trying to grab some ledges but seems impossible at first, so you just fall if you try to climb them, an attempt to walljump on the ledge may do the trick and then you'll be able to ledge climb the edge. Since this may sound weird here are a couple of spots to try it out, one in rommel and one in abbey2:
(by the time you're touching a ledge and it seems that you'll just fall, press jump, and you'll climb it)
Map Designer Information
This section's purpose is to give away unit distances that may be used in maps for taking into account jumping methods people may use, and some tips for mapping related to trickjumping.
If you reading this only as a mapper and didn't read the rest of the guide, keep in mind that bunnyhopping (see the relevant section in here) gives the opportunity to a gamer to gain significant speeds after subsequent jumps and therefore overcome the units to some extend that are referenced here. Their main limits are the map itself, stamina and jumping height (they mostly gain speed, not height, but speed makes the gamers able to go further).
Mappers can limit the maps in several ways to avoid extensive trickjumping exploitation. For example not giving the gamer enough space to bunnyhop extensively, curving some edges for making them unable to ledge grab, clipping out roofs and taking extra care on what walljumping can achieve. btw, take a look at the weird walljump-ledge climbing issue on the previous section. It may prove important.
Here follow some jumping methods to be considered that are commonly performed by gamers. If you're very interested in the subject and these are not enough for you, I would recommend decompiling a .bsp of a jumping training map or a standard map with well known jumping spots for finding out the units you're interested in first hand (q3map2 is capable of decompilation provided a .bsp was compiled with it). Decompilation won't bring a map to a proper state but for this purpose, it's more than enough.
Ok, around 280 units in x/y between two brushes on the same z level, will be reached with a proper single circle/strafe jump with sprinting, without grabbing the other ledge However, that is very difficult to be achieved even by the best jumpers in a usual game(it's a near-perfect jump) so if you _want them_ to reach the other side by a single trickjump in most games, start with 240 units or a bit less.
Similar to the above jump is the same method but without landing on the other side, but ledge climbing it. In that case 312 units or maybe more of x/y distance on the same z level can be reached, however this is similarly very difficult to be performed and if you actually want most of them to grab it by a single trickjump, start with around 280 units or less.
Keep in mind the above two examples even on their highest values can be easily reached if the gamer has enough space to do at least one prior jump, i.e. to bunnyhop in advance. In addition, if a wall is nearby will probably make simple walljumping preferable to them because it can be easier.
Other commonly used distances without actually taking into account trick jumping, only normal jumping:
From standing on the edge or walking and jumping as you reach the edge:
a 128 unit gap will mean you have to grab the other side (90% of the time..)
Traveling at normal running speed and jumping as you reach the edge:
you can clear 128 units easily and land safely on the other side.
Running and jumping as you reach the edge
192 units and you'll grab the edge at the other side.
Sprinting and jumping as you reach the edge
you can clear 192 units and land safely on the other side.
Sprinting and jumping as you reach the edge
256 units and you'll grab the edge at the other side (most of the time..).
Maximum ledge height = 110
the maximum height that a player can climb by jumping up and grabbing from a standing (stationary) position beneath a ledge.
Maximum clear jump from standing/walking = 99
the maximum distance a player can jump from standing and land on the other side.
Maximum clear jump from running = 199
the maximum distance a player can jump when running and land on the other side.
Maximum clear jump from sprinting = 243
the maximum distance a player can jump when sprinting and land on the other side.
Maximum jumping height = 66
the maximum height a player can jump onto a ledge before needing to grab and pull themselves up.
Props and Credits:
Thanks to Mike, Joram, Tarquin, #hoppits @ qnet, No|Leaf|Clover, Hybridesque, Hobbes, ShminkyBoy, q3 physics sites and all the rest.
And of course to Silicon Ice Development for creating the best shooter game of its time, asking nothing in return.
fs at www0 dot org